Mar 23, 2019
Resolved: On balance, refugee restrictions in developed countries are permissible. [Definitions] According to Wellman, a professor at Washington university, Refugees are generally understood as individuals who must leave their home country due to war or persecution, as is the United Nations understanding. And developed countries are countries with advanced economies. According to the University of Belgrade, “permissible” means Tolerable. In practice, what is morally permissible is what is in a way morally indifferent, and it is the subject of legitimate freedom. Tolerance is possible only when I tolerate something with which I disagree, something that is unpleasant, odious and repulsive. [Framework] Providing the definition of some key terms in the resolution, this debate should be about whether refugees are tolerable in developed countries. If the PRO side can prove that refugees restrictions are permissible in developed countries by providing evidences and linking every piece to the topic, while giving clear citations to each and making logical sense, then the PRO will win this round. Contention 1: National sovereignty The definition of National sovereignty is one country/state’s power to handle internal affairs without any external interference. According to ARDD LEGAL AID, Because refugee status is contingent upon border-crossing, this legal definition strips other forced migrants – such as people displaced by intra-national conflicts – of the protections and resources afforded to refugees. Some scholars have warned against broadening the definition, because the stipulation that refugees must cross state borders is the legal caveat that allows the international community to aid refugees without infringing on national sovereignty. According to Amit Singh, in 2016, Jurisdictional sovereignty allows the States to pass immigration laws; and, it has been considered an essential sovereign act of the State. Since development of the modern states from the fifteen century onwards, governments have regarded control over their borders as core of the sovereignty. An essential characteristic of sovereignty is the State’s prerogative to regulate the stay and entry of people within their geographical border. Many countries put various kinds of limitations on non-citizens regarding their stay and entry in their territory. So since the refugees cannot violate against the national sovereignty, we can use the authority to limit the amount and types of refugees. Sovereignty is a very important system that in which protects the states’ natives, provides insurance for what kind of people comes into the country, and it helps the country to stay at a not overpopulated stage. Contention 2: Terrorism Terrorism has been described variously as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and a holy duty; a justified reaction to oppression and an inexcusable abomination. As an asymmetric form of conflict, it confers coercive power with many of the advantages of military force at a fraction of the cost. Terrorism is an act of injustice which is now quite common in some developed countries. According to fact-check.org and new york times, Last year, the F.B.I. has averaged 10,000 assessments annually, and 7,000 to 10,000 preliminary or full investigations involving international terrorism. On the same day that Trump signed the executive order, The FBI is investigating 300 people who were admitted into the United States as refugees as part of 1,000 counter terrorism investigations involving Islamic State or individuals inspired by the militant group.” This example shows that in the United states, counter terrorism is a big deal composed by refugees. Contention 3: Cultural tention The Europeans show increasing Islamophobia towards the Muslims coming from Islamic states. According to the most recent annual European Islamophobia report in 2017, Europe’s average public opposition to further migration from predominantly Muslim states is 55 percent, ranging from 41 percent in Spain to 71 in Poland. At the same time, according to the pew research center, the percentage of Muslims fleeing conflicts in Syria and other predominately Islamic countries in Europe increased from 19.5 million (3.8% of the over-all population ) in 2010 to 25,8 million (4.9%) in the middle of 2016. If we lift control over refugee restriction largely in developed countries, the contradiction between western culture and Muslims will only be intensified. Less refugee restriction means most of them resettles in developed countries. The European stereotype of islam coming from violent extremism such as 9/11 and Isis plus an influx of refugees which shared their living resources will intensified the sense of insecure, xenophobia and bias towards islam. The cultural tension can lead to social instability and chaos including stabbing, arson, melee attack, shooting and so on in those developed countries which is both detrimental to local citizens and newly settled refugees.