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SmileJ
Mar 23, 2019
In NSDA
CON Definitions l According to Laura Westra and Dr. Kristin Shrader-Frechette[1], ‘permissible” means morally right and obligatory. l According to UNESCO[2], a refugee is [a person who has]"a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it. Framework Providing the definition of some key terms in the resolution, this debate should be about whether refugees are desirable in developed countries. If the CON side can prove that refugee restrictions are permissible in developed countries by providing evidence and links every piece to the topic, while giving clear citations to each and makes logical sense, the CON will win this round. Contention 1: Refugees are treated badly in host countries, with no laws protecting them. Subpoint A: The European Union Europe is currently mistreating refugees and asylum seekers in inhumane ways. According to Independent.uk[3], "hundreds of thousands of people are detained in Europe every year in relation to migration, with EU laws allowing refugees to be locked up for up to 18 months without criminal conviction." Europe lacks a significant amount of just and judicial oversight of refugee detention, and a spokesperson for the Amnesty International commented on this issue:" Migrants and asylum seekers are often detained for long periods, sometime in conditions which fall far short of international standards." Other methods involve fingerprinting, numbering, and use of police forces, and all are insensate practices, some even violating International refugee law codes. Subpoint B: Inhumane living conditions at refugee camps While refugee camps are considered safe refuge and a better place to live than refugees' native homes, conditions at these camps are still awful, creating health, safety, and moral issues for the refugees. According to Olivia Coletta of Duke University[4], [in a Greek refugee camp] "Food is given to families based on their size, and extra water and food is very rarely handed out. When [the volunteer] traveled to the camp Calais in France, she found that the camp was infested with rats, the water was contaminated with feces, and tuberculosis was rampant." The Greek camp in question is "overpopulated as it hosts 5,000 refugees, exceeding the capacity by 2,000 people." Confined lifestyles at these camps also has grave effects on refugees' mental health. According to Karolina Tagaris[5], in Greek refugee camps, it quoted a staff member of Praksis, its partner organization, saying," The living conditions have made them lose hope and feel like animals and objects." Also according to Tagaris, on Lesbos, where more than 3,000 asylum-seekers live, MSF recorded a 2.5-fold increase in the percentage of patients with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Symptoms of psychosis and cases of self-harm and suicide also rose. Contention 2: Developed countries are violating UNHCR laws One of the E.U.’s top priorities is to halt the arrival of refugees and asylum seekers who have transited through nearby countries such as Libya, Morocco and Turkey. Populist political parties throughout much of the E.U. are reaping the electoral benefits of taking a hard line on the issue of refugees and migration. Several European governments have shown little hesitation in violating the international refugee laws they have signed in their desperation to seal Europe’s borders.[6] In the Mediterranean, for example, the E.U. is funding the Libyan coast guard to intercept and return any refugees who try to leave the country by boat. Those people are subsequently confined to detention centers where, according to Amnesty International, they are at risk of torture, forced labor, extortion and murder at the hand of smugglers, bandits or the Libyan authorities. Throughout the world, governments are closing their borders to refugees and depriving them of basic rights. Exiled populations are being induced to repatriate against their will and to countries that are not safe. As epitomized by the E.U.’s deal with Turkey, asylum seekers have become bargaining chips in interstate relations, used by political leaders to extract financial, political and even military concessions from each other. Another example would be Sri Lanka has deported 88 Pakistanis since August 1, despite claims that they could be at risk in their homeland. In this group, 11 women and 8 children is inside. "Some of the latest deportees had their passports and asylum-seeker certificates seized last week. They were told to go to Colombo airport, where they were placed on flights to Pakistan. Developed countries in EU and parts of Asia is violating the law that you cannot send refugees back or to some place that their status might be threatened. Contention 3: Resettlement Capacity (Developed countries do have the capacity to accept more refugees. Morally, if we can help, we should help) Sub-point A: The European Union Countries such as the United States and the countries in the European Union do have the ability to allow for refugee resettlement. According to Mark Leon Goldberg on the UN Dispatch[7], [the European Union accepted] "134,000 migrant arrivals to Europe in 2018, which is actually a significant decrease from 2017, which saw nearly 180,000 arrivals." Even in 2015, when 1 million refugees came into Europe, the Swedish prime minister[8] said that “We need to improve the European refugee policy toward the system that shares the responsibility for receiving refugees more even [sic] throughout Europe." He also said “We are a continent of 500 million people, we could easily handle this task if we cooperated.” If Europe acts as a union, the refugee crisis will be contained. Sub-point B: The United States. There are more than 65 million fleeing refugees in the world, and each year, according to Chris Gelardi[9], "less than 1% of the world's refugees are given the coveted opportunity to restart their lives in a new country." According to Julie Davis and Miriam Jordan[10], The United States has recently lowered the refugee quotas to below 50,000. Because of this, "the flow of refugees to the US has slowed to a trickle, and 2018 is on pace to be the worst year for resettlement to the US in decades," as stated by Gelardi. According to Patrick Goodenough[11] , "The Trump administration admitted a total of 22,491 refugees into the United States during fiscal year 2018,” which is the lowest since 1977, according to State Department data. It is not that developed countries do not have the ability to accept these refugees, it's just that they refuse to. The United States has 640 million acres of land, which is 28% of the whole, global acreage. As stated by the Unites States Census Bureau[12] on March 4th, 2015, "US cities are home to 62.7 percent of the US population, but comprise just 3.5 percent of land area." According to the Rural Health Information Hub[13], only 46,082,739 people live in rural areas as of 2016. This leaves more than enough room for refugees to resettle in rural parts of the country. [1] Kristin, Dr. Shrader-Frechette; Westra, Laura, Technology and Values, https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=HTfFAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA17&dq=permissible+meaning&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=permissible%20meaning&f=false “An obligatory act is one that morality requires you to do, it is not permissible for you to refrain from doing it. It is wrong not to do it.” [2] UNESCO, Refugee,http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/refugee/ “ "a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.” [3] Dearden, Lizzie, The Independent UK, September 2, 2015, “The four ways Europe is treating refugees like convicted criminals”, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/refugee-crisis-four-ways-european-countries-treat-asylum-seekers-like-convicted-criminals-10483185.html [4] Coletta, Olivia, Duke University, March 27, 2018, “Refugee Camps: Poor Living Conditions and their Effects on Mental Health” https://sites.duke.edu/refugeementalhealth/2018/03/27/refugee-camps-poor-living-conditions-and-their-effects-on-mental-health/ [5] Tagaris, Karolina, Reuters, “Migrant mental health crumbles https://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-greece-idUSKBN16M35N [6] https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/community/2018/09/13/as-the-world-abandons-refugees-unhcrs-constraints-are-exposed [7] Goldberg, Mark, editor of UN Dispatch, December 11, 2018, “European Union Releases Facts and Figures for Migrant and Refugees Arrivals in 2018”, https://www.undispatch.com/european-union-releases-facts-and-figures-for-migrant-and-refugees-arrivals-in-2018/ [8] Sirota, David, senior editor of the IB Times, January 21, 2016, “Europe Refugee Crisis: Sweden Says EU Can ‘Easily’ Accept Millions Of Refugees” https://www.ibtimes.com/europe-refugee-crisis-sweden-says-eu-can-easily-accept-millions-refugees-2274510 [9] Gelardi, Chris, Global Citizen, April 26, 2018, “Here’s How Many Refugees the US Has Accepted in 2018”, https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/us-accepted-refugees-2018/ [10] Davis, Julie; Jordan, Miriam, New York Times, September 12, 2017, “White House Weighs Lowering Refugee Quota to Below 50,000” , https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/12/us/politics/trump-refugee-quota.html [11] Goodenough, Patrick, CNS News, October 2, 2017, “FY 2018 U.S. Refugee Admissions Lowest in 38 Years”, https://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/patrick-goodenough/fy-2018-refugee-admission-figures-lowest-38-years [12] United States Census Bureau, March 4, 2015, “ US Cities are Home to 62.7 percent of the US Population, but Comprise just 3.5 percent of Land Area” https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2015/cb15-33.html [13] Rural Health Information Hub, https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/states/united-states
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SmileJ
Mar 16, 2019
In NSDA Novice
Definitions l Permissible= morally right and obligatory Kristin, Dr. Shrader-Frechette; Westra, Laura, Technology and Values, https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=HTfFAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA17&dq=permissible+meaning&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=permissible%20meaning&f=false “An obligatory act is one that morality requires you to do, it is not permissible for you to refrain from doing it. It is wrong not to do it.” l Refugee- asylum seeker UNESCO, Refugee,http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/refugee/ “ "a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.” Framework Providing the definition of some key terms in the resolution, this debate should be about whether refugees are desirable in developed countries. If the CON side can prove that refugees restrictions are permissible in developed countries by providing evidence and links every piece to the topic, while giving clear citations to each and makes logical sense, the CON will win this round. Contentions l Contention1: Resettlement l Contention2: Refugees are treated badly l Contention3: Developed countries violating UNHCR/treaty laws
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SmileJ
Mar 09, 2019
In NSDA
Contention 1 : Developed countries do have the capacity to accept more refugees. (Morally, if we can help, we should help) Sub-point A: The European Union Countries such as the United States and the countries in the European Union do have the ability to allow for refugee resettlement. According to Mark Leon Goldberg on the UN Dispatch[1], [the European Union accepted] "134,000 migrant arrivals to Europe in 2018, which is actually a significant decrease from 2017, which saw nearly 180,000 arrivals." Even in 2015, when 1 million refugees came into Europe, the Swedish prime minister[2] said that “We need to improve the European refugee policy toward the system that shares the responsibility for receiving refugees more even [sic] throughout Europe." He also said “We are a continent of 500 million people, we could easily handle this task if we cooperated.” If Europe acts as a union, the refugee crisis will be contained. Sub-point B: The United States. There are more than 65 million fleeing refugees in the world, and each year, according to Chris Gelardi[3], "less than 1% of the world's refugees are given the coveted opportunity to restart their lives in a new country." According to Julie Davis and Miriam Jordan[4], The United States has recently lowered the refugee quotas to below 50,000. Because of this, "the flow of refugees to the US has slowed to a trickle, and 2018 is on pace to be the worst year for resettlement to the US in decades," as stated by Gelardi. According to Patrick Goodenough[5] , "The Trump administration admitted a total of 22,491 refugees into the United States during fiscal year 2018,” which is the lowest since 1977, according to State Department data. It is not that developed countries do not have the ability to accept these refugees, it's just that they refuse to. The United States has 640 million acres of land, which is 28% of the whole, global acreage. As stated by the Unites States Census Bureau[6] on March 4th, 2015, "US cities are home to 62.7 percent of the US population, but comprise just 3.5 percent of land area." According to the Rural Health Information Hub[7], only 46,082,739 people live in rural areas as of 2016. This leaves more than enough room for refugees to resettle in rural parts of the country. [1] Goldberg, Mark, editor of UN Dispatch, December 11, 2018, “European Union Releases Facts and Figures for Migrant and Refugees Arrivals in 2018”, https://www.undispatch.com/european-union-releases-facts-and-figures-for-migrant-and-refugees-arrivals-in-2018/ [2] Sirota, David, senior editor of the IB Times, January 21, 2016, “Europe Refugee Crisis: Sweden Says EU Can ‘Easily’ Accept Millions Of Refugees” https://www.ibtimes.com/europe-refugee-crisis-sweden-says-eu-can-easily-accept-millions-refugees-2274510 [3] Gelardi, Chris, Global Citizen, April 26, 2018, “Here’s How Many Refugees the US Has Accepted in 2018”, https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/us-accepted-refugees-2018/ [4] Davis, Julie; Jordan, Miriam, New York Times, September 12, 2017, “White House Weighs Lowering Refugee Quota to Below 50,000” , https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/12/us/politics/trump-refugee-quota.html [5] Goodenough, Patrick, CNS News, October 2, 2017, “FY 2018 U.S. Refugee Admissions Lowest in 38 Years”, https://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/patrick-goodenough/fy-2018-refugee-admission-figures-lowest-38-years [6] United States Census Bureau, March 4, 2015, “ US Cities are Home to 62.7 percent of the US Population, but Comprise just 3.5 percent of Land Area” https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2015/cb15-33.html [7] Rural Health Information Hub, https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/states/united-states
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SmileJ
Mar 02, 2019
In NSDA
As sovereign states, countries have the power to control their own borders. Arar,Rawan, Postdoctoral Fellow in International and Public Affairs, Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University; expert in international Development, Immigration, Race & Ethnicity, January 10, 2017,”National Challenges in Today's Global Refugee Crisis“ https://scholars.org/brief/national-challenges-todays-global-refugee-crisis "More developed nations engaged in refugee resettlement can protect their sovereign authority by controlling their borders and selecting and screening prospective refugees with special attention to those who may pose security concerns. Such states can regulate the numbers who enter and limit the demographic impact and costs. Dealing with limited numbers, resettlement states can also offer authorized employment, which may enable resettled people to become self-sufficient – and perhaps get on a path to citizenship – after stints of temporary government support. Importantly, resettlement states do not need to rely on aid or supervision from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees." AT: Sovereignty obsolete (globalization) States can still control their economies. Tombs, Robert, emeritus professor of French history at Cambridge University, historian and contributor at the Financial Times, author of 'The English and Their History", July 4, 2017," Sovereignty Still Makes Sense, Even in a Globalized World" https://www.ft.com/content/e54751b2-6008-11e7-8814-0ac7eb84e5f1 "But is this misty sovereignty simply an outdated political myth? We are often told that in “today’s global world” national sovereignty is meaningless as borders become irrelevant and powers shift towards international and non-state bodies. This is surely an ideological dogma more than a dispassionate observation. The amount of power states can exercise over even major economic forces is considerable, and certainly far greater than in the past. In most countries the state accounts for nearly half of gross domestic product, and quantitative easing has demonstrated the importance of monetary sovereignty. Small states are flourishing: it is the big players that face fundamental problems. Even at the lowest estimate, the residual powers of sovereign states are of huge importance." AT: Pooled sovereignty is beneficial to countries in the EU. Tombs, Robert, emeritus professor of French history at Cambridge University, historian and contributor at the Financial Times, author of 'The English and Their History", July 4, 2017,"" Sovereignty Still Makes Sense, Even in a Globalized World" https://www.ft.com/content/e54751b2-6008-11e7-8814-0ac7eb84e5f1 "The EU is claimed to have solved the problems of national sovereignty and power by pooling the former to augment the latter. But the solution is evidently not working. For many member countries, most obviously Greece, Spain, and Italy, the pooling of national sovereignty has meant devastating social, economic and political consequences. Like a political black hole, the EU sucks sovereignty from its member states, but the pool of sovereignty drains away. If sovereignty confers the recognized right to take a final decision, who in the EU has that right? As Thomas Hobbes observed, “sovereign authority is not so hurtful as the want of it”; and nothing the EU does is as damaging as the things it fails to do. It cannot solve the problems created by the euro. It cannot control the movement or direct the equitable settlement of population either from outside or within." National sovereignty is crucial to the US constitution as an independent nation. Groves, Steven, Bernard and Barbara Lomas Senior Research Fellow, cotributor at the Heritage, December 3, 2010.,"Why Does Sovereignty Matter to America?" https://www.heritage.org/american-founders/report/why-does-sovereignty-matter-america "With these words, the United States declared its sovereignty. It became a separate nation, entitled to all the rights of existing nations. It therefore claimed the “full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.” But the existing nations of the world were mostly monarchies. The Founding Fathers had a different vision for America. The United States is legitimately sovereign not because of a monarch’s decree, but because, in America, the people rule." Example of national sovereignty's importance in Ecuador. Weisbrot, Mark, co-director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research in Washington, March 19,2017, "Ecuador shows why national sovereignty is so important", https://thehill.com/blogs/pundits-blog/international/324715-ecuador-shows-why-national-sovereignty-is-so-important "National sovereignty is an undervalued asset in today's world, especially by the international media, where the views of Washington and its allies largely prevail. This is true with regard to economic as well as political issues, and its consequences can be quite heavy in a region like Latin America, long regarded by U.S. officials as their backyard. The election in Ecuador is being watched, as well as contested by, forces that have opposing views on this question. .... This progress included reducing poverty by 38 percent and extreme poverty by 47 percent. Inequality was also substantially reduced: The ratio of the income of the richest 10 percent to the bottom 10 percent was reduced from 36 in 2006 to 25 by 2012. Annual growth of income per person rose from 0.6 percent over the prior 26 years, to 1.5 percent. And access to healthcare and education was substantially increased, with spending for higher education rising from 0.7 to 2.1 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) — more than is spent by even many high-income countries. Social spending overall doubled, and public investment more than doubled, as a percentage of GDP. In order to accomplish these goals, the government had to re-regulate the financial sector, tax capital flight, require banks to repatriate most of their liquid assets held overseas and make the central bank part of the executive's economic team, among other economic reforms. Without this new role of the state — crucially, acting in the public interest instead of on behalf Ecuador's bankers and richest citizens — Ecuador could not have made most of the gains over the past decade."
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SmileJ

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