Mar 03, 2019
In NSDA Open
Diseases from Myanmar to Bangladesh Micheal Snyder 2018 “DISPLACED POPULATIONS AND THE THREAT OF DISEASE” JHSPH Center for Health Security On December 6, the WHO reported that diphtheria is “spreading fast” among displaced Rohingya refugees in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Between November 8 and December 25, 2017, a total of 2,204 cases of diphtheria were suspected in this population, including 26 deaths. This is even larger than the current diphtheria outbreak in Yemen, where 471 people are believed to be infected as of today. Most patients in Cox’s Bazar are between 5 and 14 years old. More than 646,000 Myanmar ethnic minorities, like the Rohingya, are estimated to have crossed over from Myanmar to Bangladesh to escape violence and persecution, leading to the formation of densely populated refugee settlements with limited access to water, sanitation, and health services.South Sudan Refugees Spreading Diseases SEAN JOYCE 2017 “Refugees and Infectious Diseases” BROWN POLITICAL REVIEW The South Sudanese crisis, by contrast, largely lacks both international attention and strong, stable governments and healthcare systems in host nations. With little international aid available, the poor conditions of refugee camps in the region have provided a starting point for numerous epidemics, most notably cholera, which has spread throughout the region. The epidemic is currently afflicting Kenya, the DRC, and Sudan, having originated from refugee populations and having since spread to general populations. Upwards of 1,000 individuals in Kenya, 3,000 in the DRC, and 15,000 in Sudan have contracted cholera, with case fatality rates typically in the low single digits. U.S Reasons to Invest in South Sudan Crisis SEAN JOYCE 2017 “Refugees and Infectious Diseases” BROWN POLITICAL REVIEW Instability within these nations presents an obstacle for US foreign policy objectives in the region. The US has had a strong relationship with South Sudan since its foundation, having been instrumental in promoting the country’s independence. Having poor relations with Sudan under the Obama administration, the US viewed an independent South as a potential partner, one that would serve as an example of democratic state-building and provide stability to the region. South Sudan’s vast oil reserves also made it an attractive economic partner. While sanctions on Sudan initially prevented access to South Sudanese oil, the US has since exempted South Sudan and attempted to invest in its oil. With the decaying of South Sudan’s political integrity, the US is losing a potential regional ally and ability to counter recent Chinese investment in South Sudan’s oil industry. Deaths WHO Vulnerable individuals, especially children, are prone to respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illnesses because of poor living conditions, suboptimal hygiene and deprivation during migration, and they require access to proper health care. Poor hygienic conditions can also lead to skin infections. Furthermore, the number of casualties and deaths among refugees and migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea has increased rapidly, with over 3100 people estimated to have died or gone missing at sea in the first 10 months of 2015, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).Medical Ethics Michael Silbermann,Michel Daher, Rejin Kebudi, Omar Nimri, Mazin Al-Jadiry, and Lea Baider 2016 “Middle Eastern Conflicts: Implications for Refugee Health in the European Union and Middle Eastern Host Countries” Journal of Global Oncology Ethical traditions of medicine and health care focus on a patient’s needs and should not discriminate among patients. The Hippocratic Oath taken by physicians, nurses, and health care professionals includes the following: “The health of my patient will be my first consideration; may I never see in the patient anything but a fellow human in need. I will treat all patients with compassion, no matter how much they differ from me. I will respect the secrets patients confide in me.” There is nothing in the oath that excludes illegal immigrants or poor citizens from care because of any constraints. Our commitment to our ethical principles requires that any patient who is sick deserves treatment, regardless of personal profile or legal status. Moreover, if we used our health care system to police illegal immigrants, it would undermine the trust between patient and physician and, by extension, trust in the health system at large, and would make such people even more reluctant to seek health care services. This could worsen the patient's own health and, at times when patients suffer from communicable diseases, could be harmful to others, as well. Furthermore, issues related to illegal immigrants should be resolved through appropriate policies and laws, not through the health care system.